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Автор Тема: Ananda-sutra  (Прочетена 45262 пъти)
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« : 12 Септември, 2005, 09:49:20 »

This topic is dedicated to the analysis and both philosophical and pragmatic implications of Ananda-sutra by Avadhutika Anandamurti.
 
Use this thread to post here original text and illustrative material to be commented upon. Please note that the basic philosophy underlying Ananda-sutra is the monistic Brahmanism rather than the dualist metaphysics of Samkhya-Yoga. There are also local particularities (lekhaka-dosa) that should be kept in mind when reading the text. An excerpt from the Publisher's Note to the book will probably explain the original situation:
 
"Shri Shri Anandamurti, the founder of Ananda Marga, dictated the original Bengali Ananda Sutram to a close devotee as they sat, in a series of night sessions in 1961, on the tiger's grave in Jamalpur that Anandamurtiji and the devotees used to frequent. The devotee wrote by the light of a candle. Sometimes the candle flame was sheltered by a glass drinking tumbler as a sort of makeshift lantern."
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« Отговор #1 : 12 Септември, 2005, 09:50:02 »

I.1: Shiva-shaktyatmakam Brahma
 
Purport:
Brahma is the composite of Shiva and Shakti, ie, Consciousness and Operative Principle.
 
A piece of paper has two sides, so to say. Although they are two for the sake of argument, they can under no circumstances be separated from that one paper entity. Removal of one side of the paper jeopardises the existence of the other. So is the relation of Purusa (Consciousness) and Prakrti (Operative Principle) in the Cosmic Entity (Brahma). None of them can stand without the other. That is why, it is said that they are an inalienable concomitance.
 
As a philosophical word, Shiva or Purusa is used in the pervasive sense and yet in common parlance the word, Atman or Soul or Self is more extensively used. Shiva means Witnessing Consciousness. So does Purusa - 'Pure shete yah sah purusah', ie, the witness-ship that lies quiescent in every entity is the Purusa. Atman means that which is omni-telepathic.
 
The physical sense of the body is telepathised on the mental plate. In other words the physical sense is awakened in the mental plate due to the reflection that follows the impact of the crude physical waves on the mental plate. Similarly the sense of every crude object is awakened in the mental plate as soon as the reflection takes place following the impact of the waves of the objects on the mental plate. Identical mental waves hit the soul entity, causing the reflection of those mental waves and this awakens in the unit a sense of its indivisibility from the soul.
 
If, in the language of philosophy, mental waves, ie, thought, be called thought-waves, then the reflection of the mental waves on the soul-plate will have to be termed telepathic waves. And so in reference to the soul-plate, we may say that it is telepathic to the mind. All mundane objects, crude, subtle or causal, consist in the mental waves or thought-waves and so in the fullest accord with reasoning and logic we may call the soul omni-telepathic. It is because of this onmi-telepathic Atman that the existence of all mundane objects, visible or invisible, large or small, find their factual substantiation and recognition. Had there been no Atman, the existence of everything would have been in jeopardy.
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« Отговор #2 : 12 Септември, 2005, 09:50:45 »

I.2: Shakti sa Shivasya shaktih
 
Purport:
Every object has a material cause and an efficient cause. Over and above these there is also a conjunctive agency linking the material cause (Upadana) with the efficient or instrumental cause (Nimiita). The determination of the firmness or laxity of the relation of the material cause with the efficient cause depends on the degrees of conjunctive functions.
 
In the process of creation Purusa (The Principle of Consciousness) is the material factor, and Prakrti (The Operative Principle) is the linking force consummating the relation between the material and the efficient causes. As the efficient cause Purusa (Consciousness) is the primary factor and Prakrti (Cosmic Operative Principle) is the secondary one. Purusa is the all-pervading entity and so none else except Him can be the material cause. Prakrti or Operative Principle, not being all-pervading, is sheltered in Purusa. In the body of Purusa, Prakrti can only work according to the opportunity given by the Purusa. And so, in the science of creation Purusa alone as the Doer-Entity is the chief efficient or instrumental cause and since Prakrti has been posing as the Doer with the authority given to her by Purusa, she is the subordinate efficient cause.
 
The distortion or expressions which are taking place in the material cause (Upadana) through the efficient cause (Nimitta) and which we call worldly manifestations, are effected by the three attributes (Sattva - sentient/lucent, Rajah - mutative/modifying and Tamah - static/inertia) of Prakrti. This accounts for the Prakrti being the linking force between the efficient cause and the material cause. So the firmness or feebleness of the object-body fully depends upon the degrees of the influence of Prakrti.
 
The role of Purusa is foremost in all spheres. Prakrti only acts to whatever extent the Purusa has authorised or authorises her to act. In the process of evolution the Purusa gives Prakrti the authority to work and she goes on working. The subtle Purusa goes on attaining crudity gradually due to the bondage of the three gunas or attributes of Prakrti. In the ultimate state of His crudity the Purusa slowly and gradually keeps shrivelling up the opportunity and liberty of Prakrti previously given to her and thus the crudified Purusa, gradually regaining His subtlety returns to His own ultimate characteristic state.
 
The flow of manifestations of the Cosmic Body (Purusa) under the binding influence of Prakrti is what we call Saincara or extroversion from the subtle to the crude, while the gradual process of liber ation that results in the Cosmic Body (Purusa) due to progressive looseness of the bondage is what we call Prati-saincara or introversion from the crude t the subtle. It is now abundantly clear that even though Prakrti is free to make honest use of her acquired power, the attainment or non-attainment of this power depends on Purusa or Citi-Shakti (Consciousness) and so we have to say, Prakrti is but the characteristic of Purusa Himself--Shakti sa shivasya shaktih.
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« Отговор #3 : 12 Септември, 2005, 09:51:26 »

I.3: Tayoh siddhih saincare pratisaincare ca
 
Purport:
The existence of any entity is known by the process of its activity, thought or witness-ship, of which witness-ship belongs to Purusa (Consciousness) and the other two substantive factors primarily belong to Prakrti (Operative Principle). And so the fact of Prakrti being the causal entity of the stream of action and thought will be recognised only when She completely identifies herself with objectivity. This appropriation of objectivity by Prakrti depends on her ever-increasing (saincara) or decreasing (pratisaincara) influence on Purusa. Prakrti's manifestation lies in these extrovertive (saincara) and introvertive (pratisaincara) processes. In all these manifestations of Prakrti, Purusa not only exists as the material cause but as the witness as well, in all states and conditions.
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« Отговор #4 : 12 Септември, 2005, 09:52:03 »

I.4 Paramashivah Purusottamah vishvasya kendram
 
Purport:
The trivalent Operative Force (Prakrti) has been apparently crudifying the original Consciousness through Her own binding forces - this is one of the processes of Her activity. Her other process being that by gradually relaxing the influence of Her three attributes on the crude object She regains the characteristic of the Purusa, thus putting an end to Her binding operation. The first named process of the Operative Force (Prakrti) is centrifugal and the other half is centripetal. The Cosmic Cycle (Brahma Cakra or Srs'ti Cakra) or evolutionary process is manifested through the combination of these very centrifugal and centripetal actions. The nucleus of this Cosmic Cycle is indeed the characteristic bearing (svabha'va) of the Purusa. The material cause of the entire Cosmic Cycle is the Purusa or Shiva (Consciousness) and we shall call this nucleus Parama Shiva or Purusottama.
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« Отговор #5 : 12 Септември, 2005, 09:52:47 »

I.5: Pravrtimukhii saincarah gunadharayam
 
Purport:
The object-ward movement (expression) of the Purusa (Consciousness) from the nucleus of the Cosmic Cycle under the influence of Prakrti (Operative Force) is called pravrtii (extrovertive phase).
 
As the result of the initial impact of the Operative Force on the witnessing Purusottama (Cosmic Nucleus), there awakens in Him the sense of existence, which, in the language of philosophy is called Mahattattva, and the Operative Force concerned, whereby this Mahattattva comes into being is called sattvaguna or the sentient principle of Prakrti. Guna means binding principle.
 
The second impact of the operative force of Prakrti results in the sense of doer-ship or authorship. This changed expression of the Purusa is called Ahamtattva or 'doer I' and the Operative Force concerned is called rajoguna or the mutative principle of Prakrti.
 
Finally, through the greater impact of the operative force of Prakrti, in the wake of Her successive attacks comes the crudest objectivity or complete objectivation of Purusa (the crudest objective counterpart of the subjective cosmos). This condition of the Purusa is called Citta or mind stuff. The Operative Force concerned, whereby such objectivation takes place, is called tamoguna or static principle of Prakrti.
 
That is to say, with the onset of desire and attachment (pravrtti) the centrifugal action (saincara) issues right from one and the same Purusa through the gradual process of the binding principles (gunas).
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« Отговор #6 : 12 Септември, 2005, 09:53:27 »

I.6: Nivrttimukhii pratisaincarah gunavaksayena
 
Purport:
The excess of desire (vrtti) is pravrtti (attachment) or the accelerated momentum of desire. The recessive or waning momentum of vrtti is nivrtii (detachment) or the loss of desire in the introversial phase.
 
During the centrifugal momentum, desire finds its fullest expression in the Purusa (Consciousness) under the static influence of Prakrti (Operative Force). The citta (done I or objective mind or mindstuff) entity that comes into play in the body of Purusa under the static influence of Prakrti, when accepted by the jiivatman (the individual soul or the subjective part of the microcosm) as something perceivable or knowable, appears as the five gross physical elements, ten organs and five tanmatras (sensible and supersensible inferences or generic essences).
 
When the attributional flow reaches its finality, then starts the shedding of the gunas or the binding factors - that is to say, the Purusa then keeps contracting the power of Prakrti. The result is that Prakrti, attracted by the Purusa, gets drawn to Purusottama (the nucleus of the universe). Consequently again, the five gross physical elements gradually get metamorphosed into body, vital energy and mind of the unit. Finally the unit mind merges into Purusottama (the Nucleus Consciousness) as the result of shedding of the binding principles. It is because of the merger of the unit mind into its primal cause that the ultimate state of pratisaincara (introversial movement) is a nonattributive one. This may be called the dissolution of the individual life.
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« Отговор #7 : 12 Септември, 2005, 09:54:31 »

I.7: Drk Purusah darshanam Shaktishca
 
Purport:
Acting is seeing, witnessing is substantiation. In the absence of the latter, seeing remains unsubstantiated. Thinking, speaking, moving, accepting - these fall in the category of action. The witness-ship that vouches for the existence of these activities, that substantive bearing, is Purusa (Consciousness) and the expression of activity that takes place under His witness-ship is charged with the gunas (attributes) of Prakrti (Operative Principle).
 
If we call the expression of the material waves actional faculty, its apparent witness will be the citta-entity (objective mind). If the citta-ic expression be termed actional faculty, then its apparent witness will be the ahamtattva (doer-I) or ego. If the expression or manifestation of ego be called actional faculty, then its apparent witness will be mahattattva (sense of I-feeling). If we call the sense of I-ness or mahat actional faculty, then its witness-ship, that is, 'I-know-I-am'-ness will be acceptable as the ultimate witness. This 'I know' is not the apparent witness of anybody or thing, it is the absolute witness of everything in all conditions. Hence, candidly this bearing alone falls in the category of 'drk' or ultimate cognition. This in truth is the attributed Consciousness of Purusa.
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« Отговор #8 : 12 Септември, 2005, 09:55:38 »

I.8: Gunabandhanena gunabhivyaktih
 
Purport:
Guna means binding principle. The stronger the bondage upon anything the cruder the thing becomes. When in Her freedom acquired from the Purusa (Consciousness), the Prakrti (Operative Principle) binds Purusa, the conscious Purusa gets metamorphosed into Mahattattva (Cosmic I-feeling), Ahamtattva (Cosmic Doer-I), Citta (Cosmic Done-I) under the ever increasing binding factors and then, as a result of the gradually greater and still greater bondage of the static principal (tamoguna) there come into being as per degrees of crudification, the ethereal, the aerial, the luminous, the liquid and (ultimately) the solid factors. Even in the latter there are degrees of bondages.
 
On account of the firmness of bondages the interatomic and inter-molecular distances go on decreasing, as the result of which the internal frictions in the material body go on increasing. The external pressure of attributional bondage and the internal frictions compel greater and greater attributional expressions in the bodies of objects. Here one should bear in mind that attributional expression does not mean the excess of attributional capabilities but that of the attributional manifestations as well as the attributional peculiarities.
 
The akashatattva or ethereal factor has the sound carrying attribute. Suppose if we fix its measure at one hundred, in that case when the akashatattva gets metamorphosed into vayutattva or aerial factor on account of the greater static bondage, the attribute of touch is also expressed therein along with the sound-carrying attribute but the attributional capacity remaining what it is - unenhanced. The sound-carrying attribute wanes in the vayutattva as compared to akashatattva but all the same the combined measure of the sonic and the factual attributes still remains at one hundred.
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« Отговор #9 : 12 Септември, 2005, 09:56:14 »

I.9: Gunadhikye jadasphotah bhutasamyabhavat
 
Purport:
Even after the transformation of the object-body into solid factor (ksititattva), if the onslaught of the binding principle continues unabated, the equipoise of the elements gets lost and a material explosion (jadasphota) takes place. As a result of this explosion the ksititattva, .due to its excessive internal friction, gets pulverised into subtler elements like liquid (apa), luminous (tejas), aerial (marut) and ethereal (vyoma) factors, completely or partially, that is to say, its movement undergoes the process of negative saincara (ie negative movement reversing the extroversial flow from the subtle to the crude). Nevertheless the resultant subtler elements after the explosion, of course, retake the same old path of saincara (extroversial flow from the subtle to the crude).
 
The ethereal element of the Cosmic Mind gets gradually cruder and cruder as per degrees of the ever-increasing flow of the gunas (binding factors or attributional principles), ie from akasha or vyoma (ethereal) to marut (aerial), from marut to tejas (luminous), from tejas to apa (liquid) and from apa to ksiti (solid). The more the progress of these metamorphoses the more varied the attributional peculiarities noticeable in the material bodies, and their dimensions also get shrunk and diminished.
 
The dimensional contraction means the increase of internal frictions and this happens due to the excess or magnitude of the external attributional flow. Due to these excessive internal frictions explosions take place in the material bodies and they get pulverised into subtler elements. These explosions owning to hyper-attributional pressure occur only when the degree of the tension of the solid element becomes abnormally high as compared to other elements. In the absence of any wide disparities (either too high or too low) in the tensional relations of the elements, living organisms come into being instead of explosion.
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